(Paper) RBI Grade 'B' Officer Mains Exam Phase I - 2018
RBI Grade 'B' Officer Mains Exam Phase I - 2018
Direction (1-6): In the following passage, there are blanks, each followed by a word given in bold.
All these bold words are jumbled and do not necessarily fit in the blank against them. Find the appropriate fit for every blank and mark the answer accordingly. There is a lot of academic (A) (unique) in Marketing on retailing and most of it looks at the retail industry in North American and European countries. The retail industry in (B) (organised) economies such as India presents challenges that are typically not seen in these contexts. The learning from the developed world cannot be applied directly to the retail industry in the emerging economies. The Indian retail industry has certain key features that make it (C) (requires). First, the retail space is dominated by traditional kirana stores. Walk through a street and you will find more kirana stores than (D) (emerging) retail outlets like Big Bazar or Reliance Fresh. Second, the government regulation (E) (printed) fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) manufacturers to print the “Maximum Retail Price” or MRP on the package of the product. In the US, the retailer (F) (relatively) the price paid by the consumer but here the MRP is (G) (decides) on the package. This anchors the final retail price for a product. Third, you often see retailers offering extra price and quantity benefits at the store level like discounts or bundled products. Manufacturer-led promotions are (H) (reshaping) infrequent. Very rarely would you see Unilever India or a Proctor & Gamble offering a 15% extra for their regular 180ml shampoo. Finally, we have the (I) (research) of rural areas and cities of different sizes spread across the country. Increasing urbanisation, increasing incomes, and rising aspirations for a better quality of life are (J) (diversity) the Indian retail space.
1.Which of the following fits in blank (A)?
2.Which of the following fits in blank (B)?
3.Which of the following fits in blank (C)?
4.Which of the following fits in blank (D)?
5.Which of the following fits in blank (F)?
6.Which of the following fits in blank (H)?
Direction (7-13): Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions. Certain words are printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
In the public's eye, military men are still the sole sufferers of PTSD. But research shows that women are in some cases twice as likely to develop the disorder. Despite being far more vulnerable, women are often misdiagnosed due to cultural stereotypes, and there's a huge gap in research on which kinds of treatments work best for which kinds of people. Studies and research programs have been designed, until recently, to understand men with PTSD. The same is true for support systems and treatment centers. In the legal system, women who report PTSD from rape are less likely to be believed than men who report PTSD from combat. Research shows that women are at a higher risk of PTSD. While men experience more traumatic events in their lives, women
are, depending on which study you look at, as much as twice as likely to develop PTSD, but no one really knows why. Pervasive male prejudice against women is another factor that can diminish unit cohesion for female soldiers. Because women are less likely than men to experience unit cohesion while serving in the military, women are less likely to develop the social support structures that will help prevent them from developing PTSD. For women, this hesitation to self-identify as a sufferer of PTSD could be even greater; historically, female soldiers have struggled to be counted as equals to men on the battlefield. Women, stereotypically considered to possess less emotional fortitude than men, may be unwilling to admit that they are suffering from PTSD lest they appear to conform to this stereotype.
That domestic bit has another face too: Where men who've experienced trauma might be able to take time off to recover, women are expected to maintain their domestic, caregiving roles, which make it harder for women to address symptoms of post-traumatic stress for fear of "failing" at their roles as mother, daughter and wife. "Gendered social roles can compound the negative impact," said Dawne Vogt, a research psychologist at the Women's Health Sciences Division of the National Center for PTSD. "So they might have additional stress when they're dealing with something. "Technically, PTSD is largely the same for men and women, characterized by things like fear based anxiety, sleep disturbance, flashbacks, feelings of detachment and more. And both men and women often experience multiple conditions alongside PTSD. But they seem to develop different sets of additional problems. Women tend to develop depression alongside their PTSD, while men tend to tack on substance abuse. What that means is
that men with PTSD tend to show a different profile than women do. Men tend to lash out, showing anger, hostility, explosiveness and unpredictability. Women, often because of their depression, tend to do the opposite, becoming withdrawn and turning to self harm. What is clear is that women who return from combat, with PTSD or not, often have a harder time returning to their lives. According to a report by the Departments of Veterans Affairs, Defense, Labor and Housing and Urban Development, "America's nearly 300,000 women veterans are put at risk by a system designed for and dominated by male veterans." This includes lack of access to peer support, group therapy and specialized mental health care for things like PTSD. Recent changes made by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs have improved treatment options for female veterans living with PTSD, but there is still more that needs to be done.
Women veterans are also more likely to be unemployed than male veterans, and at least twice as likely to be homeless. On top of that, women veterans are more likely to be single parents and come back to dependents. But Vogt says that nobody knows how this might impact their PTSD, or which treatments might work best. And it's not necessarily clear that what works for veterans will work for civilians either. Right now, for example, most of the research on virtual reality uses for treating PTSD focuses on military men.Another challenge is that until very recently, treatment for PTSD has been more difficult for women than men to obtain. Before rule changes were enacted in 2010, only veterans who encountered direct combat experience qualified to receive disability payments for PTSD. Because very few women are placed on the front lines, very few were eligible to receive free treatment for PTSD. However, recent regulation
changes have ended these stipulations, allowing women who serve in any capacity to be eligible for benefits. Even if female veterans are eligible for these benefits, the quality of the care a wartime PTSD sufferer receives can vary widely. The United States Department of Veterans Affair(VA) pays disability benefits to service men and women who have been diagnosed with PTSD and also provides these individuals with free health care. But while mental health counseling that comes directly from VA doctors is completely free to veterans, there are often long waiting lists for those who need to be evaluated or treated. Therapy provided by non-VA professionals may not be covered by health insurance. Access to mental health professionals who have been specially trained to treat wartime PTSD is often difficult for those not living near major urban centers.
On both the research level and the policy level, more must be done to help the women who have sacrificed so much for their country Figuring out which treatment works best for PTSD is still an ongoing process for everybody, men and women alike. But if researchers want to help treat people equally, they'll need to include more women.
7.What is the style of the passage?
8.Choose the word which is NOT the synonym for the word ‘Traumatic’ used in the passage.
9.Based on information in the passage, it can be inferred that negative stereotypes about women in the military contribute to their increased likelihood to develop PTSD in which of the following ways?
I. Some male members of the armed forces subscribe to negative stereotypes about women; this prejudice may prevent women from forming close bonds with their units.
II. Women may be less likely than men to admit to suffering from PTSD because they do not want to conform to stereotypes that portray women as weak.
III. Women are aware of the negative stereotypes that pervade the military. This awareness may lead to a reduction in self-esteem.
A. Only I
B. Only II
C. Both I and II
D. Both II and III
E. None of these
10.According to the passage, what are the reasons that treatment for PTSD has been more difficult for women than men to obtain?
I. Most of the research on virtual reality uses for treating PTSD focuses on military men.
II. Because very few women are placed on the front lines, very few were eligible to receive free treatment for PTSD as per the previous rules which include that only veterans who encountered direct combat experience qualified to receive disability payments for PTSD.
III. Women do not follow the regularities properly that are needed in treatment of PTSD and tend to recover slower than man.
A. Only I
B. Only II
C. Only III
D. Both I and II
E. All I , II and III
11.Which of the following is the primary purpose of the passage?
A. To explain why military veterans are more likely than civilians to develop PTSD
B. To persuade government officials to increase funding for PTSD treatment centers in non-urban areas for female veterans
C. To denounce the United States military for the way they have handled female veterans’ mental health problems
D. To inform readers about the likely warning signs of PTSD among military veterans
E. To educate readers about the problem of insufficient treatment available for female veterans with PTSD
12.According to the passage, what makes PTSD harder for a female veteran as compared to a male veteran?
I. Women also suffers from depression alongside their PTSD, because of their depression, they self-harm themselves.
II. Women are not able to take time off to recover from PTSD because females give more importance and time in maintaining their domestic roles as compared to treatment of their PTSD.
III. Most female veterans refuse to seek treatment
A. Only I
B. Only II
C. Only III
D. Both I and II
E. All I,II and III
13.Based on information in the passage, which of the following statements best reflects the author’s opinion about the mental health care provided for female veterans?
A. Although the VA has not done nearly enough, state and independent agencies have made up for government deficiencies.
B. The government has done almost nothing to help; the way we treat our female veterans is a national disgrace.
C. Because service women are more likely than service men to develop PTSD, mental health care has been better for female veterans.
D. The VA and other government agencies have attempted to provide mental health care for female veterans, but most of them refuse to seek treatment.
E. The amount of care provided has improved over the past few years, but it is still insufficient