Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

We have witnessed several disasters in recent times-some natural, others man-made. The frequency of such calamities has inured’ us and deadened our collective sensitivity, but that does not reduce the enormity of the personal tragedy of each victim’s family and community. The economic loss is only secondary to the human suffering, but is also substantial. The Government, whether State or Central, has standardised its response. This consists of reacting late, blaming others, visits by VIPs announcing a relief package including compensation for those affected, and then forgetting all about it. There seems to be little attempt at drawing lessons from each disaster, storing the knowledge for future use, and ‘long-term planning for possible pre-emptive action. Preparedness for disasters thus falls short of what is possible using today’s technologies. . Floods in many parts of India like the states of Bihar and
Assam are a yearly phenomenon. Yet the government seems to be caught by surprise year after year. It is obvious that tarpaulins, vaccines and other medicines, clothes, satellite phones, large numbers of doctors and paramedical staff, etc will be needed as will boats and buses for evacuation. This is known to all those who have combated emergencies, yet the non-availability of these essential services and commodities occurs. Worse, the organisational structure and mechanisms for dealing with disasters are lethargic and ill-defined. The National Disaster Management Agency set up a short time ago, being a Central Government agency, has its limitations relating to infringing the jurisdiction of states. It could have aggregated and disseminated experiences and knowledge, stocked many of the essential items required in an emergency or worked with agencies to ensure sufficient stocks, but hasn’t.
While the reaction to major disasters is dismal, the response to emergencies like accident is equally sad. Victims lie unattended since passers-by are wary of getting caught in a labyrinthine of police and legal systems. The resulting delay in treatment converts injuries into deaths. Of late, unique and free service to provide assistance in emergency cases is operational. Emergency Management and Research institute (EMRI) is a professionally managed operation- initiated by the vision and grant from Ramalinga Raju. The service, which is a successful example of public-private partnership, is likely to become operational in a few states in the near future. Given the sad failure of conventional government organisations in handling disasters, it is time we looked at the PPP model as an alternative without the government seeking in any way to abdicate its responsibility. While the state provides the funding, private organisations will provide the drive, professionalism, competent management and output-linked efficiency of a good corporate organisation. Combining the sensitivity and purpose of an NGO with private entrepreneurial drive to handle disasters together is thus a worthwhile challenge for both corporates and the government?

1. Why do bystanders not help accident victims?

(1) They lack the necessary medical knowledge,
(2) It is the responsibility of the driver of the vehicle.
(3) Cumbersome police formalities
(4) Medical attention via satellite phones can be provided promptly.
(5) None of these

2. Which of the following is NOT true in the context of the passage?

(1) Man-made disasters occur more frequently than natural disasters.
(2) The Public Private Participation model has been successful in handling emergencies.
(3) Floods occur every year in some Indian states.
(4) Analysis of previous disasters will help us cope with future ones.
(5) People have become indifferent to disasters.

3. Which of the following has been the customary government reaction to disasters?

(A) It has handled disasters with utmost sensitivity.
(B) It responds in a professional, efficient manner which has been standardised over time.
(C) It ensures monetary aid reaches those afflicted by disasters.

(1) Only (A)
(2) Only (B)
(3) Both (A) & (B)
(4) Only (C)
(5) None of these

4. What is the author’s view of the government’s current reaction to natural disasters?

(1) The government has not been able to handle disasters and should seek foreign aid.
(2) A Central Government agency should be set up to speed up coordination in rescue efforts.
(3) It has failed to utilise donations effectively to provide relief.
(4) The government is apathetic and has not managed to handle disasters effectively.
(5) None of these

5. Which of the following is TRUE about EMRI?

(1) It is run by a philanthropist
(2) It has widespread operations all over India.
(3) The government has no say in its functioning.
(4) EMRI is a non-governmental organisation.
(5) It is an emergency management service.

1. (3) 2. (1) 3. (5) 4. (4) 5. (5)

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