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IBPS (PO) Previous Year Exam Paper - 2012 "Quantitative Aptitude"


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IBPS (PO) Previous Year Exam Paper - 2012

Subject: Quantitative Aptitude

Directions (Q. 51 -55) : What will come in place of the question mark (?) in the following questions?

51. 4003 × 77 – 21015 = ? × 116

(1) 2477
(2) 2478
(3) 2467
(4) 2476
(5) None of these

52. [(5Ö7 + Ö7) × (4Ö7 + 8Ö7)] – (19)2 = ?

(1) 143
(2) 72Ö7
(3) 134
(4) 70Ö7
(5) None of these

53. (4444÷ 40) + (645 ÷ 25) + (3991 ÷ 26) = ?

(1) 280.4
(2) 290.4
(3) 295.4
(4) 285.4
(5) None of these


(1) 37
(2) 33
(3) 34
(4) 28
(5) None of these


(1) 303.75
(2) 305.75
(3) 303
(4) 305
(5) None of these

Directions (Q. 56-60): What approximate value should come in place of the question mark (?) in the following questions? (Note: You are not expected to calculate the exact value.)


 8787 ÷ 343 × Ö50=?

(1) 250
(2) 140
(3) 180
(4) 100
(5) 280


(1) 48
(2) 38
(3) 28
(4) 18
(5) 58


of 4011.33 + of 3411.22 = ?

(1) 4810
(2) 4980
(3) 4890
(4) 4930
(5) 4850


23% of 6783 + 57% of 8431 = ?

(1) 6460
(2) 6420
(3) 6320
(4) 6630
(5) 6360


 335.01 × 244.99 ÷ 55 = ?

(1) 1490
(2) 1550
(3) 1420
(4) 1590
(5) 1400

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Printed Study Material for IBPS PO Exam

IBPS / SBI Special TX: 

(Notification) Recruitment of Probationary Officers (PO) in State Bank of India - 2018 (ADVERTISEMENT NO: CRPD/ PO/ 2018-19/01)


(Notification) Recruitment of Probationary Officers (PO) in State Bank of India - 2018


Any eligible candidate, who aspires to join State Bank of India as a Probationary Officer, is required to register on-line for the Recruitment Process. The examination will be held in three phases i.e. Preliminary examination, Main examination and Group Exercise & Interview. The candidates who are shortlisted after Preliminary examination will have to appear for Main examination. The candidates shortlisted after the main examination will be subsequently called for a Group Exercises & Interview. Prospective candidates will have to apply after carefully reading the advertisement regarding the process of examinations and interview, eligibility criteria, online registration processes, payment of prescribed application fee/ intimation charges, pattern of examination, issuance of call letters etc. and ensure that they fulfil the stipulated criteria and follow the prescribed processes.

Post Detail :





















Education Qualification: 

(A) Essential Academic Qualifications: (AS ON 31.08.2018): Graduation in any discipline from a recognised University or any equivalent qualification recognised as such by the Central Government. Those who are in the Final year/ Semester of their Graduation may also apply provisionally subject to the condition that, if called for interview, they will have to produce proof of having passed the graduation examination on or before 31.08.2018. Candidates having integrated dual degree (IDD) certificate should ensure that the date of passing the IDD is on or before 31.08.2018. Candidates possessing qualification of Chartered Accountant may also apply.

Note: i. The date of passing eligibility examination will be the date appearing on the mark sheet or provisional certificate issued by the University/ Institute. In case the result of a particular examination is posted on the website of the University/ Institute, a certificate issued by the appropriate authority of the University/ Institute indicating the date on which the result was posted on the website will be taken as the date of passing. ii. Candidate should indicate the percentage obtained in Graduation calculated to the nearest two decimals in the online application. Where CGPA/ OGPA is awarded, the same should be converted into percentage and indicated in the online application. If called for interview, the candidate will have to produce a certificate issued by the appropriate authority inter alia stating the norms of the University regarding conversion of grade into percentage and the percentage of marks scored by the candidate in terms of norms. iii. Calculation of Percentage: The percentage marks shall be arrived at by dividing the total marks obtained by the candidate in all the subjects in all semester(s)/ year(s) by aggregate maximum marks in all the subjects irrespective of honours/ optional/

ii. Manifest deformity and paresis but having sufficient mobility in their hands and feet to enable them to engage in normal economic activity;

iii. extreme physical deformity as well as advanced age which prevents him/her from undertaking any gainful occupation, and the expression "leprosy cured" shall be construed accordingly;

b. “cerebral palsy" means a Group of non-progressive neurological conditions affecting body movements and muscle coordination, caused by damage to one or more specific areas of the brain, usually occurring before, during or shortly after birth;

c. "Dwarfism" means a medical or genetic condition resulting in an adult height of 4 feet 10 inches (147 centimeters) or less;

d. "Muscular dystrophy" means a group of hereditary genetic muscle disease that weakens the muscles that move the human body and persons with multiple dystrophy have incorrect and missing information in their genes, which prevents them from making the proteins they need for healthy muscles. It is characterised by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue; e. "Acid attack victims" means a person disfigured due to violent assaults by throwing of acid or similar corrosive substance. Note: Only person with benchmark disabilities would be eligible for Reservation. “Person with benchmark disability” means a person with not less than forty percent of a specified disability where specified disability has not been defined in measurable terms and includes a person with disability where disability has been defined in a measurable terms, as certified by the certifying authority. A person who wants to avail the benefit of reservation will have to submit a disability certificate issued by a Competent Authority as prescribed vide RPWD Act, 2016. Such certificate will be subject to verification/ re-verification as may be decided by the competent authority.

Online Crash Course for SBI PO Exam

Printed Study Material for SBI PO Exam

IBPS HINDI - आई. बी. पी. एस.: 

(Notification) NABARD : Recruitment of Assistant Manager post of Officers in Grade ‘A’ (RDBS)

(Notification) NABARD : Recruitment of Assistant Manager post of Officers in Grade ‘A’ (RDBS)

Applications are invited from Indian citizens for the post of Assistant Manager in Grade ‘A’ in the Rural Development Banking Service (RDBS) in National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD). Candidates can apply only ON-LINE on NABARD website Notices between 13 March 2018 and 02 April 2018.

Post Details:

NABARD 2018 Notification was released on 13th March 2018. The last date to fill in the application form was 2nd April 2018. A total vacancy of 92 was declared by NABARD to recruit candidates to Assistant Manager post in different segments of the National Bank of Agriculture and Rural Development.


(Jobs) Canara Bank : Recruitment of Probationary Officers In Junior Management

(Jobs) Canara Bank : Recruitment of Probationary Officers In Junior Management

Canara Bank, a leading Public Sector Bank with Head Office in Bengaluru and pan India presence with over 6100 branches, invites ON-LINE APPLICATIONS, from the eligible candidates to apply for admissions to the specially designed One year training course leading to Post Graduate Diploma in Banking and Finance (PGDBF) either through Manipal Global Education Services Pvt Ltd., Bengaluru or NITTE Education International Pvt Ltd., Mangaluru, which are recognised by UGC.

  • The course comprises of 9 months of classroom studies and 3 months internship at Canara Bank’s Branches / Offices.
  • This one year full-time PGDBF course will be conducted either at Manipal Global Education Services Pvt Ltd, Bengaluru campus or NITTE Education International Pvt Ltd. Mangaluru campus.
  • The programme is fully residential during 9 months classroom studies and the selected candidates should necessarily stay in the campus

Candidates will be selected for admission to the course at either of the above two institutes through selection process consisting of online objective test followed by Group Discussion and Personal Interview. On successful completion of the course, candidates will be awarded with “Post Graduate Diploma in Banking and Finance (PGDBF)” from that institute and the candidates would be offered appointment in the Bank as Probationary Officer in Junior Management Grade Scale-I.

Eligible candidates can apply ON-LINE through link given in our Bank’s website No other means / mode of Application will be accepted. Please read this advertisement carefully and ensure your eligibility before paying fees / submitting on-line application.

Please note that: a) The process of Registration of application is complete only when fee is deposited with the Bank through On-line mode on or before the last date for fee payment; b) Before applying, candidates are requested to ensure that they fulfill the eligibility criteria for the post as on the cut-off date. c) Candidates are advised to check Bank’s website for details and updates.

Details of Posts:


Educational Qualification:

A Degree (Graduation) with a minimum of 60% marks (55% for SC/ST/PWBD) or equivalent grade, in any discipline from a University recognised by the Government of India or any equivalent qualification recognized as such by the Central Government.

Printed Study Material for All Bank PO Exams 


(Syllabus) Recruitment of Specialist Cadre Officers in SBI

(Syllabus) SBI Recruitment of Specialist Cadre Officers

Test will be held on-line. Wherever there will be no test, short-listing and  interviews will be held.Where number of applications is less, Bank reserves the right to consider selection of the candidate(s) through shortlisting and interview, instead of test & interview.

a) Except Professional Knowledge (PK) paper, other papers will be of  qualifying in nature. Candidates have to score minimum qualifying marks  in these papers. The minimum qualifying marks will be decided by the
Bank. The questions will be bilingual i.e. in Hindi & English. The candidates will have option to answer the questions in Hindi or English (except for test of English Language).

b) To be eligible for being short-listed for interview, candidates have to score equal to or above the cut-off marks to be decided by the Bank for the PK test, besides scoring equal to or above the Minimum qualifying marks in other tests. For the post of Economist the qualifying marks in Descriptive test will be decided by the Bank.

c) Candidates must secure equal to or more than the minimum qualifying marks (to be decided by the Bank) in interview to be considered for selection. In the interview, the candidate can opt for Hindi also.Merit List: a) for selection will be prepared in descending order on the basis of scores obtained in PK test, Descrptive test (when applicable) and interview or interview only, as the case may be.

d) In case more than one candidate score the cut off marks (common mark at cut off point), such candidates will be ranked according to their age in descending order, both in the select list as well as in the wait list.

Study Kit for SBI, IBPS, Banks Specialist Officer Exam

IBPS / SBI Special TX: 
IBPS HINDI - आई. बी. पी. एस.: 

(Paper) IBPS Clerk Previous Year Exam Paper "Held on 27-11-2011, 1st Sitting - Computer Knowledge" (South Zone)

IBPS Clerk Previous Year Exam Paper - 2011

Subject: Computer Knowledge

1. Which of the following is not true about computer files?

(1) They are collections of data saved to a storage medium.
(2) Every file has a filename.
(3) A file extension is established by the user to indicate the computer on which it was created
(4) All files contain data.
(5) None of these

 2. Which of the following is not an example of hardware?

(1) WORD
(2) Printer
(3) Monitor
(4) Mouse
(5) Scanner

3. Which of the following is a secondary memory device?

(1) Keyboard
(2) Disk
(3) ALU
(4) Mouse
(5) Printer

4. The result of a formula in a cell is the

(1) label
(2) value
(3) range
(4) displayed value
(5) None of these

 5. Which of the following is not a storage medium?

(1) hard disk
(2) flash drive
(3) DVD
(4) CD
(5) monitor




Printed Study Material for IBPS Clerk Exam

Printed Study Material for IBPS PO Exam

IBPS / SBI Special TX: 

(Notification) Union Bank Specialist Officers (Forex & Treasury) Recruitment 2017

(Notification) Union Bank Specialist Officers (Forex & Treasury) Recruitment 2017

Post Details & Pay Scale :

1. Union Bank of India (herein after called the Bank), a leading listed Public Sector Bank with Head Office in Mumbai and having Pan India, as well as, Overseas presence, invites On-line Applications for recruitment to the following posts in Specialized Segment.



(NEWS) SBI Bank Changes Branch Name, Code and IFSC Code for 1295 Branches

(NEWS) SBI Bank Changes Branch Name, Code and IFSC Code for 1295 Branches




IBPS HINDI - आई. बी. पी. एस.: 

(News) SBI Will Use AADHAAR Card for JOBS

(News) SBI Will Use AADHAAR Card for JOBS

State Bank of India (SBI) propose to introduce the scheme of verifying the identity of candidates applying for all its recruitment processes through Aadhaar cards w.e.f. 1 st July 2017.

Ascertaining the identities of candidates is critical for fair conduct of recruitment process and prevention of impersonation. The provisions of Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and Other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2016 (the Aadhaar Act 2016) and the Regulations under the Act have come into effect on various dates as published in the Official Gazette. Pursuant to Section 57 of the Aadhaar Act 2016, SBI proposes to verify the identity of the candidates through Aadhaar number in all its recruitment processes w.e.f. 1st July 2017. Accordingly, while applying for appointment in SBI it will be mandatory to furnish the 12 digit Aadhaar No. (or 28 digit Aadhaar enrolment ID in case the Aadhaar has been applied for, but not received). The Aadhaar number will be used at discretion of SBI to match the biometric information taken through biometric attendance system at the time of the examination/ interview/ medical fitness test/ reporting for joining with that stored on the Aadhaar server to establish the identity of the candidate. The above provision is applicable in all States and Union Territories of India except the States of Jammu & Kashmir, Meghalaya and Assam. Applicants from these States may use voter ID, passport, driving license or any other valid document, as may be specified by SBI in the relevant recruitment notice, as proof of identity for future recruitments in SBI.


Click Here to Download full Notification

IBPS HINDI - आई. बी. पी. एस.: 

(Notification) SIDBI Lucknow : Recruitment of Content Writer on contract basis

(Notification) SIDBI Lucknow : Recruitment of Content Writer on contract basis

The Bank invites applications for the post of Content Writer on contract basis.

Post Details :

Requirement of Content Writer on contract basis

A. Post Content Writer on contract basis at SIDBI, Lucknow.
B. Scope of work To prepare content on issues concerning MSME Sector,
Developmental activities & new initiatives undertaken by SIDBI and any other work as may be decided from time to time.

Age limit

Between 25-35 years

Educational Qualification : 

Graduate / Post Graduate in any discipline from a recognized Indian / Foreign University / Institute.

Experience :

The applicant should have adequate experience in content writing or in some related area with excellent command of written English and exposure to MSME sector.

Pay Scale :

Remuneration Consolidated amount of `35,000/- per month. No other allowance/facility/benefits will be paid/admissible.

Selection Procedure :

Selection would be by way of personal interview by the Selection Committee.


Duly filled in application (in English or Hindi), as per the format available on the Bank’s website, alongwith required documents, should be sent to the Deputy General Manager, Human Resources Vertical (HRV), Small Industries Development Bank of India, 15 Ashok Marg, Lucknow 226001, on or before December 15, 2017. The envelope containing the application should bear the superscription “Content Writer on Contract basis".


(i) Candidates, called for interview will be paid economy Airfare / 2 nd AC railway fare by shortest route in India.
(ii) Decision of the Bank in all matters regarding eligibility, selection etc. would be final and binding on the candidates. No representation or correspondence will be entertained by the Bank in this regard.

Important Date : 

Before December 15, 2017

Click Here to Download Official Notification


(Books) RBI Assistant Examination

(Books) RBI Assistant Examination

:: Important Books ::


(Notification) IBPS Specialist Officers Exam (CRP SPL-VII) - 2017

(Notification) IBPS Specialist Officers Exam (CRP SPL-VII) - 2017

The online examination (Preliminary and Main) for the next Common Recruitment Process (CRP) for selection of personnel in Specialist Officers’ cadre posts listed below in the Participating Organisations is tentatively scheduled in December 2017/ January 2018.

Post Details:

Sr. No    POSTS

01    I.T. Officer (Scale-I)
02    Agricultural Field Officer (Scale I)
03    Rajbhasha Adhikari (Scale I)
04    Law Officer (Scale I)
05    HR/Personnel Officer (Scale I)
06    Marketing Officer (Scale I)


  • Allahabad Bank
  • Andhra Bank
  • Bank of Baroda
  • Bank of India
  • Bank of Maharashtra
  • Canara Bank    
  • Central Bank of India    
  • Corporation Bank    
  • Dena Bank  
  •  IDBI Bank    
  • Indian Bank  
  • Indian Overseas Bank    
  • Oriental Bank of Commerce    
  •  Punjab National Bank    
  • Punjab & Sind Bank    
  • Syndicate Bank
  • UCO Bank
  • Union Bank of India
  • United Bank of India
  • Vijaya Bank

(Download) IBPS-SPL : Specialist Officers Papers

Study Kit for IBPS Specialist Officer Exam

IBPS / SBI Special TX: 

(Notification) Union Bank of India : Recruitment of Credit officer (Grade-II)

(Notification) Union Bank of India : Recruitment of Credit officer (Grade-II)

Post Detail's

1. Union Bank of India (herein after called the Bank), a leading listed Public Sector Bank with Head Office in Mumbai and having Pan India, as well as, Overseas presence, invites On-line Applications for recruitment to the following post in Specialized Segment.

Book Cover


Online Purchase

RBI Assistants (Preliminary Exam) 2018 by V.V.K. Subburaj


RBI Assistants Exam Guide by Disha Experts










Credit Officer





*In addition, Special Allowance, Dearness Allowance and other allowances will be

payable as per prevailing rules and regulations in the Bank. Further, the officer will also be eligible for amenities like residential quarters/lease rent in lieu of quarters,

LFC, reimbursement of medical/hospitalization expenses and other perquisites as per

the policy of the Bank.

** The number of vacancies are tentative and can be changed at sole discretion of the Bank.

Note: The selected candidate can be posted at any Branch / Office of the Bank at sole discretion of the Bank. Hence, the candidates willing to work at any of the Branch / Office of the Bank need only apply.

The reservation in the above noted vacancies** is as under:



Scale / Grade






Within which for PWDs





Credit Officer












Note: The Bank reserves its right to interchange the number of reserved vacancies in various categories as per Government Guidelines.

Elegibility Criteria :

The applicants intending to apply should ensure that they fulfill the eligibility criteria specified herein below before applying. It should be noted that the eligibility criteria specified herein is the basic criteria for applying for the posts. However, merely applying for / appearing for and/or qualifying at any  stage  of  selection  process  for  the  posts  does  not  imply  that  a  candidate  will necessarily be eligible for employment / confer right on him / her for appointment in the Bank.

(A) Nationality / Citizenship:

An applicant must either be (i)  a citizen of India, or (ii) a subject of Nepal, or (iii)a subject of Bhutan, or (iv) a  Tibetan  refugee,  who  migrated  to  India  before  1st   January  1962,  with  the intention of permanently settling in India, or (v) a person of Indian origin who has migrated from Pakistan / Burma / Sri Lanka / East  African  countries  of  Kenya  /  Uganda  /  the  United  Republic  of  Tanzania (formerly  Tanganyika  and  Zanzibar)  / Zambia  /  Malawi  /  Zaire  /  Ethiopia  or Vietnam with the intention of permanently settling in India. Provided that a candidate belonging to categories (ii) / (iii) / (iv) or (v) above shall be a person in whose favour a certificate of eligibility has been issued by the Government of India before the date of this notification.

(B) Age, Educational Qualification and Post Qualification Work Experience

POSTCODE 01: 200 Vacancies of Credit Officers (MMGS-II)

Age : 

Minimum  : 23 years

Maximum : 32 years

Educational Qualifications :

Bachelor’s degree in any discipline with minimum 60% aggregate marks from a University/Institution/Board recognized by Govt. of India/approved by Govt. Regulatory bodies.

Note: Candidates having professional qualification like MBA (Finance) / CA/ ICWA/ CFA/ FRM/ CAIIB from a University/Institution/Board recognized by Govt. of India/approved by Govt. Regulatory bodies will be preferred.

Post Qualification Work Experience:

Post Qualification Work Experience in processing of credit proposals in officer cadre with any Scheduled Commercial Bank  for a  minimum period of two years immediately preceding  the cut-off date of application as per this Notification is mandatory.

Note: A relaxation of 5% would be available in the minimum marks required under the eligibility  criteria of Educational Qualification to the candidates belonging to Reserved Category, as per the Government guidelines.

Syllabus & Selection Process :

The  selection  process  may  comprise  of  Online  Examination  /  Group  Discussion  (if conducted) and / or Personal Interview. The Bank reserves the absolute right to decide as to whether to use all or any of these modes for selection for the notified posts.

(a) Online Examination / Test:

The structure of the Online Written Examination, if conducted, will be online and will consist of the following tests:


Name of the Tests

No. of Questions and Maximum Marks



50  multiple  choice  questions  carrying  a

total of 25 marks


Quantitative Aptitude

50 multiple  choice  questions  carrying  a

total of 50 marks.


Professional knowledge relevant to

the post.

50 multiple  choice  questions  carrying  a

total of 100 marks.


English Language

50 multiple  choice  questions  carrying  a total of 25 marks

Total Duration of Examination will be of

120 minutes

Total   200   multiple   choice   questions

carrying a total of 200 Marks.

The above tests except the test of English language will be available bilingually i.e. English and Hindi. The Bank also reserves the right to alter the structure of the online examination.

NOTE: The Bank will be analyzing the responses (answers) of individual candidates with other  candidates to detect patterns of similarity of right and wrong answers. If in the analytical procedure adopted by the Bank in this regard, it is inferred / concluded that the responses have  been shared and the scores obtained are not genuine / valid, the Bank reserves right to cancel the candidature of concerned candidates.

Penalty for wrong Answers:

There will be a penalty for wrong answers marked in the online examination. For each question for which a wrong answer has been given by the applicant, one fourth or 25% of the marks assigned to that question will be deducted as penalty to arrive at final score.  If the total of the penalty for a test is in fraction, the marks obtained will be rounded off to the nearest integer. If a question is left blank, i.e. no answer is marked by the applicant; there will be no penal mark for that question.

(b) Personal Interview

A Personal Interview of  50 marks shall  be conducted to assess the academic  & job knowledge, power of expression, clarity of thought, qualities of leadership, extracurricular activities, hobbies, general demeanor, behavior, communication skills, suitability for the post,  etc.  of the applicant. The minimum qualifying marks for the Personal Interview would be 25  marks (22.5 marks for Reserved Category applicants). The applicants not securing the minimum qualifying marks in the Personal Interview will be disqualified for selection.

(c) Important Notes:

i.  The applicants will be called for the Online Examination Group Discussion (if  conducted), on the basis of the information provided by them in their On-line Applications without verification of their age or qualification or category or any other eligibility criteria. The applicants must, therefore, ensure that they fulfill all the notified eligibility criteria as on the cut-off date prescribed in this notification, have possession of the requisite documents / certificates specified by the Bank,  and that the particulars  furnished in their On-Line Application are complete, true and correct in all respects. Merely appearing in the Online Examination /   Group Discussion (if conducted)and / or passing the Online Examination Group Discussion (if conducted)  and / or being called by the Bank for the Personal Interview shall not imply that the Bank is satisfied about the eligibility of the applicant.

ii.  The applicant shall be required to qualify in each Test of the Online Examination / Group Discussion (if conducted) as per cut-off marks, subject to minimum qualifying marks in the aggregate of 200 marks, both of which will be fixed by the Bank.

iii.  Generally, depending on the number of vacancies, only those applicants who have secured the minimum category-wise and test-wise cut-off marks to be decided for Online  Examination / Group Discussion and rank sufficiently high in the order of merit based on the total marks scored in the Online Examination / Group Discussion shall be called for Personal Interview in the ratio of 1:3 for General / Unreserved applicants and 1:5 in case  of applicants belonging to the Reserved Categories. In other words generally, for every  single post in General and Reserved category, 3 General and 5 Reserved Category applicants respectively would be called for the Personal Interview depending upon their ranking as per the marks obtained by them. However, the  Bank reserves its right to call for the Personal Interview applicants otherwise than in the above ratio at its sole discretion.

iv.  The applicants may also be called directly for Personal Interview without holding of Online  Examination /  Group Discussion. The  Bank reserves its right to call any number of applicants for the Personal Interview at its sole discretion.

v.  After the selection process, the applicants, who secure more than the prescribed minimum  qualifying marks in  the used selection processes,  will be ranked in a descending  order  on  the  basis  of  the  aggregate  marks  obtained  in  the  Online Examination / Group Discussion and / or Personal Interview under the respective SC / ST / OBC / GEN Categories.

vi.  Subject  to  the  vacancies  available  under  the  respective  Category,  only  those candidates, who pass the Online Examination / Group Discussion, if conducted, as well as, the Personal Interview will be short-listed for selection in the order of the Merit / Rank obtained by them under the respective Category.

How to Apply :

The candidates can apply only online from 04.10.2017 to 21.10.2017 (both days inclusive) and no other mode of application will be accepted.

Prerequisite for applying online:

Before applying online, candidates should:

i.  Scan their photograph and signature, ensuring that both conform to the required specifications given as Annexure-I with this notification.

ii.  Keep  the  necessary  details  of  Educational  Qualification,  Post  Qualification  Work Experience and other personal details handy for entering in the online application.

iii.  Create a valid personal email ID, if not already done. The email ID should be kept alive for entire duration of the recruitment process. Under no circumstances, the applicant should share email ID with any other person. Third party email ID is not permitted.

Fee Detail's :

Non-refundable  Application  fees/Intimation  Charges  (payable  only  through  online mode):

Category of Applicant

Amount Payable*


Rs.600.00 (application fees)

For SC/ST/PWD candidates

Rs.100.00 (intimation charges)

*The transaction charges, if any, for Online Payment of application fees / intimation charges will have to be borne by the applicant.

Note: The Payment of application fees by any other mode except online will not be accepted.  Instruments,  like  Demand  Draft  /  Banker’s  Cheque  /  Indian  postal  orders received towards payment of application fees / intimation charges will not be accepted under any circumstance. The application fees / Intimation Charges are non-refundable and once paid will not be refunded on any account nor can be held for in reserve for any other examination or selection.

Procedure for applying online: 

i.     The applicants are required to go to the Bank's website “” and click on the link "Recruitment" under “Careers” page to access the Recruitment Notification  titled  "UNION  BANK  RECRUITMENT  PROJECT  2017  -  2018  (CREDIT OFFICER ) -  RECRUITMENT NOTIFICATION”. There will be two links named as (1) Link for Notification  (2) Link for Online application. The applicant has to click on first link to download the full  notification. The applicant should carefully read and ensure that they fulfill all the eligibility criteria given in the downloaded notification. If the applicant is eligible then he/she may proceed to fill the online application form available as the second link.

ii.    The applicants should completely fill up the online application form and upload their photograph and signature, as per the specifications given in the notification under

'Guidelines for Scanning’.

iii.    The applicants should very carefully fill in the details in the On-Line Application at appropriate places and click on the “FINAL SUBMIT” button at the end of the Online Application  format.  Before  pressing  the  “FINAL  SUBMIT”  button,  candidates  are advised to verify every field filled  in he application as it cannot   be changed/altered/corrected after final submission.

iv.     The application form is integrated with the payment gateway. The payment can be made by  using Debit Cards (RuPay / Visa / Master Card / Maestro), Credit Cards, Internet Banking, IMPS, Cash Cards / Mobile Wallets.

v.     If the online transaction has been successfully completed, an e-receipt, Registration Number & Password will be generated. The applicants should note their Registration Numbers and Password for future reference.

vi.     If the online transaction has not been successfully completed then the candidates are advised to login again with their provisional registration number and password and pay the Application Fees / Intimation Charges online.

vii.    The applicants are required to take a printout of the e-receipt and the submitted online application form.


Ø   After submitting the payment information in the online application form, DO NOT press the Back or Refresh button in order to avoid double charge.

Ø   For Credit Card users, all prices are listed in Indian Rupee. In case of non-Indian credit card, the Bank will convert the amount based on its prevailing exchange rates.

Ø   To ensure the security of the data, please close the browser window once transaction is completed.

An email / SMS intimation with the Registration Number and password generated on successful registration of the application will be sent as a system  generated acknowledgement to the email ID / Mobile Number specified in the online application form. If  candidates do not receive the email and SMS intimations at the email ID / Mobile number specified by them, they may consider that their online application has not been successfully registered.

An online application, which is incomplete in any respect, such as without photograph and signature uploaded in the online application form / unsuccessful fee payment will not be considered as valid.

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submitting the ON-LINE application.

04.10.2017, 00:00 Hrs

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submitting the ON-LINE application.

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IBPS (PO) Previous Year Exam Paper - 2012 "Reasoning"

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IBPS (PO) Previous Year Exam Paper - 2012

Subject: Reasoning

Directions (Q. 1-4) : Study the following information carefully and answer the given questions:

A word and number arrangement machine when given an input line of words and numbers rearranges them following a particular rule in each step. The following is an illustration of input and rearrangement. (All the numbers are two-digit numbers.)
Input : tall 48 13 rise alt 99 76 32 wise jar high 28 56 barn
Step I : 13 tall 48 rise 99 76 32 wise jar high 28 56 barn alt
StepII : 28 13 tall 48 rise 99 76 32 wise jar high 56 alt barn
Step III : 32 28 13 tall 48 rise 99 76 wise jar 56 alt barn high
Step IV : 48 32 28 13 tall rise 99 76 wise 56 alt barn high jar
Step V : 56 48 32 28 13 ta99 76 wise alt barn high jar rise
Step VI : 76 56 48 32 28 13 99 wise alt barn high jar rise tall
Step VII : 99 76 56 48 32 28 13 alt barn high jar rise tall wise
And Step VII is the last step of the above input, as the desired arrangement is obtainied.
As per the rules followed in the above steps, find out in each of the following questions the appropriate step for the given input.
Input: 84 why sit 14 32 not best ink feet 51 27 vain 68 92 (All the numbers are two-digit numbers.)

1. Which step number is the following output?

32 27 14 84 why sit not 51 vain 92 68 feet best ink
(1) StepV (2) Step VI
(3) Step IV (4) Step III
(5) There is no such step.

2. Which word/number would be at 5th position from the right in Step V?

(1) 14 (2) 92
(3) feet (4) best
(5) why

3. How many elements (words or numbers) are there between ‘feet’ and ‘32’ as they appear in the last step of the output?

(1) One (2) Three
(3) Four (4) Five
(5) Seven

4. Which of the following represents the position of ‘why’ in the fourth step?

(1) Eighth from the left
(2) Fifth from the right
(3) Sixth from the left
(4) Fifth from the left
(5) Seventh from the left

Directions (Q. 5-11) : Study the following information carefully and answer the given questions A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are sitting around a circle facing the centre but not necessarily in the same order.

  •  B sits second to the left of H’s husband. No female is an immediate neighbour of B.
  •  D’s daughter sits second to the right of F. F is the sister of G. F is not an immediate neighbour of H’s husband.
  •  Only one person sits between A and F. A is father of G. H’s brother D sits on the immediate left of H’s mother. Only one person sits between H’s mother and E.
  •  Only one person sits between H and G. G is the mother of C. G is not an immediate neighbour of E.

5. What is the position of A with respect to his mother-in- law?

(1) Immediate left (2) Third to the right
(3) Third to the left
(4) Second to the right
(5) Fourth to the left

6. Who amongst the following is D’s daughter?

(1) B
(2) C
(3) E
(4) G
(5) H

7. What is the position of A with respect to his grand child?

(1) Immediate right
(2) Third to the right
(3) Third to the left
(4) Second to the left
(5) Fourth to the left

8. How many people sit between G and her uncle?

(1) One
(2) Two
(3) Three
(4) Four
(5) More than four

9. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way based on the given information and so form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?

(1) F
(2) C
(3) E
(4) H
(5) G

10. Which of the following is true with respect to the given seating arrangement?

(1) C is cousin of E.
(2) H and H’s husband are immediate neighbours of each other.
(3) No female is an immediate neighbour of C.
(4) H sits third to the left of her daughter.
(5) Bis mother of H.

11. Who sits on the immediate left of C?

(1) F’s grandmother
(2) G ‘s son
(3) D’s mother-in-law
(4) A
(5) G

Directions (Q. 12-18): In each group of questions below are given two/three statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two/three statements, disregarding commonly known facts.

Give answer

(1) if only conclusion I follows.
(2) if only conclusion II follows.
(3) if either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.
(4) if neither conclusion I nor conclusion II follows.
(5) if both conclusion I and conclusion II follow.



Some exams are tests.
No exam is a question.


I. No question is a test.
II. Some tests are definitely not exams.



All forces are energies.
All energies are powers.
No power is heat.



 I. Some forces are definitely not powers.
II. No heat is force.



 I. No energy is heat.
II. Some forces being heat is a possibility.


Statements: No note is a coin.
Some coins are metals.
All plastics are notes.



I. No coin is plastic.
II. All plastics being metals is a possibility.



 I. No metal is plastic.
II. All notes are plastics.



Some symbols are figures.
All symbols are graphics.
No graphic is a picture.


I. Some graphics are figures.
II. No symbol is a picture.



 All vacancies are jobs.
Some jobs are occupations.


I. All vacancies are occupations.
II. All occupations being vacancies is a possibility.

Directions (Q. 19-21):

Study the following information carefully to answer the given questions:

Each of the six friends - A, B, C, D, E and F - scored different marks in an examination. C scored more than only A and E. D scored less than only B. E did not score the least. The one who scored the third highest marks scored 81 marks. E scored 62 marks.

19. Which of the following could possibly be C’s score?

(1) 70
(2) 94
(3) 86
(4) 61
(5) 81

20. Which of the following is true with respect to the given information?

(1) D’s score was definitely less than 60.
(2) F scored the maximum marks.
(3) Only two people scored more than C.
(4) There is a possibility that B scored 79 marks.
(5) None is true

21. The person who scored the maximum, scored 13 marks more than F’s marks. Which of the following can be D’s score?

(1) 94
(2) 60
(3) 89
(4) 78
(5) 81

Directions (Q. 22-29): Study the following information carefully to answer the given questions.

Eight persons from different banks, viz UCO Bank. Syndicate Bank. Canara Bank, PNB, Dena Bank, Oriental Bank of Commerce, Indian Bank and Bank of Maharashtra, are sitting in two parallel rows containing four people each, in such a way that there is an equal distance between adjacent persons. In row 1 A, B, C and D are seated and all of them are facing south. In row 2, P, Q, R and S are seated and all of them are facing north. Therefore, in the given seating arrangement each member seated in a row faces another member of the other row. (All the information given above does not necessarily represent the order of seating as in the final arrangement.)

  • C sits second to right of the person from Bank of Maharashtra. R is an immediate neighbour of the person who faces the person from Bank of Maharashtra.
  • Only one person sits between R and the person from PNB. The immediate neighbour of the person from PNB faces the person from Canara Bank.
  • The person from UCO bank faces the person from Oriental Bank of Commerce. R is not from Oriental Bank of Commerce. P is not from PNB. P does not face the person from Bank of Maharashtra.
  • Q faces the person from Dena Bank. The one who faces S sits to the immediate left of A.
  • B does not sit at any of the extreme ends of the line. The person from Bank of Maharashtra does not face the person from Syndicate Bank.

22. Which of the following is true regarding A?

(1) The person from UCO Bank faces A.
(2) The person from Bank of Maharashtra is an immediate neighbour of A.
(3) A faces the person who sits second to the right of R.
(4) A is from Oriental Bank of Commerce.
(5) A sits at one of the extreme ends of the line.

23. Who is seated between R and the person from PNB?

(1) The person from Oriental Bank of Commerce
(2) P
(3) Q
(4) The person from Syndicate Bank
(5) S

24. Who amongst the following sit at extreme ends of the rows?

(1) D and the person from PNB
(2) The persons from Indian Bank and UCO Bank
(3) The persons from Dena Bank and P
(4) The persons from Syndicate Bank and D
(5) C,Q

25. Who amongst the following faces the person from Bank of Maharashtra?

(1) The person from Indian Bank
(2) P
(3) R
(4) The person from Syndicate Bank
(5) The person from Canara Bank

26. P is related to Dena Bank in the same way as B is related to PNB based on the given arrangement. Who amongst the following is D related to, following the same pattern?

(1) Syndicate Bank
(2) Canara Bank
(3) Bank of Maharashtra
(4) Indian Bank
(5) Oriental Bank of Commerce

27. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way based on the given seating arrangement and thus form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?

(1) Canara Bank
(2) R
(3) Syndicate Bank
(4) Q
(5) Oriental Bank of Commerce

28. Who amongst the following is from Syndicate Bank?

(1) C
(2) R
(3) P
(4) D
(5) A

29. C is from which of the following banks?

(1) Dena Bank
(2) Oriental Bank of Commerce
(3) UCO Bank
(4) Syndicate Bank
(5) Canara Bank

Directions (Q. 30-34) : Each of the questions below consists of a question and three statements numbered I, II and III given below it. You have to decide whether the data provided in the statements are sufficient to answer the question. Read all the three statements and Give answer

(1) if the data in Statement I and II are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in Statement III are not required to answer the question.
(2) if the data in Statement I and III are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in Statement II are not required to answer the question.
(3) if the data in Statement II and III are sufficient to answer the question, while the data in Statement I are not required to answer the question.
(4) if the data in Statement I alone or in Statement II alone or in Statement III alone are sufficient to answer the question.
(5) if the data in all the Statements I, II and III together are necessary to answer the question.

30. Among six people P, Q, R, S, T and V, each lives on a different floor of a six-storey building having its six floors numbered one to six (the ground floor is numbered 1, the floor above it, number 2, and so on, and the topmost floor is numbered 6).

Who lives on the topmost floor?

I. There is only one floor between the floors on which R and Q live. P lives on an even-numbered floor.
II. T does not live on an even-numbered floor. Q lives on an even-numbered floor. Q does not live on the topmost floor.
III. S lives on an odd-numbered floor. There are two floors between the floors on which S and P live. T lives on a floor immediately above R’s floor.

Printed Study Material for IBPS PO Exam

IBPS / SBI Special TX: 

(Article) Bad Loans in Infrastructure Sector and Ordinance on New NPA Resolution Policy

 (Article) Bad Loans in Infrastructure Sector and Ordinance on New NPA Resolution Policy


As   per   the   S&P   Global   Ratings,  Indian   banks’ stressed assets  are   likely  to  increase  to  15%  of total  loans  by  March  end,  2018.  Top  50  bad  loans of  corporates engages  in  core   and   infrastructure sectors have been identified by Reserve Bank of India (RBI) who’s over dues are  as  high as  4.5 lakh crore forming  85  percent of the  total  bad  loans  of public sector banks. Recognizing this  growing  concern  of the  banking industry  and  recovery measures  to  be undertaken on  a  war  footing,  the  Government has recently  come out  with an  ordinance on  NPA Loan Policy  Resolution. The  ordinance aims  at amending two  laws  namely,  the  Banking  Regulation (BR) Act,


(Article) प्लास्टिक मुद्रा के प्रयोग से जुड़ी चुनौतियाँ (Challenges related to the use of plastic currency)

(Article) प्लास्टिक मुद्रा के प्रयोग से जुड़ी चुनौतियाँ (Challenges related to the use of plastic currency)तकनीक, जोखिम और परिवर्तन को एक ही सिक्के के दो पहलू माना जा सकता है। इतिहास गवाह है कि दुनि या के तमाम बड़े परिवर्तन बदलती आवश्यकता के परिप्रेक्ष्य में समय, तकनीक एवं आवश्यकता के समन्वय के आधार पर हुए हैं और अधिकांश परिवर्तनों के साथ मानवीय सुविधा एवं समन्वय जुड़े हुए होते हैं। बीते दशक की बैंकिंग भी इन ऐतिहासिक बदलावों, परिवर्तनों से अछूती नहीं रही है। यह बैंकिंग तकनीक में आए बदलाव का ही असर है कि आज बैंकिंग सेवा किस ी-न-किस ी रूप में 24x7 उपलब्ध है। इन बदलावों, परिवर्तनों से बैंकिंग सेवा में हर रोज नए बदलाव परिलक्षित हो रहे हैं, जिससे आम जनता के साथ-साथ देश की अर्थव्यवस्था भी लाभान्वि त हो रही है।


(Article) New Paradigms in Banking

(Article) New Paradigms in Banking

Dr. J. N. Misra introduced the panel members and elucidated that IIBF had sought the views of all banks on the theme under discussion. The feedback received from them was then incorporated in the presentations as discussion points for the distinguished panel for further deliberations

Introducing the theme, Dr. Misra said that the changing face of banking is a reality. From brick and mortar to click and order banking, from deposit and lending to payments, from physical to electronic clearing, etc., the way banking is done has undergone a sea change. How we cope with the changing environment is the challenge before us. How we position ourselves with this change. It is essential that bankers are aware and prepared to handle the change.

The  reasons  for  the  shift  in  paradigm  has  been varied  and  has  arisen  on  account  of  increasing customer expectation, fillip provided   by  technological advancements, the delivery procedures have undergone a sea change. There is a need to see how the deliveries can be sharpened, focused and how they are done in the days to come. Stricter regulatory norms have come into the picture. There are a lot of security concerns with the growing use of Information Technology and risk magnification needs to be handled by all bankers.


(Article) Payment Banks and Small Finance Banks

(Article) Payment Banks and Small Finance Banks

Payment   banks   have   the   primary   objective   of financial inclusion through providing small savings accounts and payment/remittance services to the migrant labour workforce, low income households, small businesses, other unorganised sector entities and other users, by enabling high volume-low value transactions in deposits and payment / remittance services in a secured technology-driven environment. Payment banks are not allowed to undertake lending activities and will be restricted to holding a maximum balance of 100,000 per individual customer initially. Apart from amounts maintained as CRR with the Reserve Bank on outside demand and time liabilities, these banks will be required to invest minimum 75 per cent of their ‘demand deposit balances’ in government securities/treasury bills and in other securities with maturity up to one year that are recognised by the Reserve Bank as eligible securities for maintaining SLR and hold maximum 25 per cent in current and time/ fixed deposits with other  SCBs  for operational purposes and liquidity management. The 11 applicants who have received in-principle approval for setting up payment banks propose to bring fresh capital of 16.22 billion to the banking system and an addition  of 1,140  bank  branches in their first year  of operation.

The  objective   of  setting   up  of  small  finance   banks (SFBs) is furthering financial inclusion  by (i) providing  savings  vehicles  primarily  to  unserved and  underserved  sections  of  the  population,  and (ii)  supplying  credit  to  small  business  units,  small and  marginal  farmers,  micro  and  small  industries, and other unorganised sector entities, through high technology-low cost operations. SFBs have a priority sector lending target of 75 per cent of adjusted net bank credit (ANBC) and at least 50 per cent of the loan portfolio should comprise of loans and advances of up to 2.5 million. The 10 applicants who have received in-principle approval for setting up SFBs propose to bring fresh capital of ₹ 57.34 billion to the banking system and an addition of 2,444 bank branches in the first year  of operation.


(Article) Implications of ‘disruptions’ – ‘Blockchain’ technology

(Article) Implications of ‘disruptions’ – ‘Blockchain’ technology

The initial concerns over the emergence of virtual currency schemes (digital currencies like Bitcoin) had been about larger issues related to the underlying design and incentive-structures of such privately- owned, internet-enabled alternative currency systems and their implications for the traditional monetary system. Even as opinions diverged on their merits, episodes of excessive volatility in their value and the failure of some virtual currency exchanges proved to  be  a  dampener  to  their  take-off.  On  the  other hand, their anonymous nature that goes against global money laundering rules rendered their very existence  questionable.  While  these  issues  along with challenges for consumer protection and taxation related aspects are being debated, the key technical concept of ‘blockchain’ which underpins such crypto- currency systems, is drawing more attention now. With its  potential   to  fight  counterfeiting,  the  ‘blockchain’ is likely to bring about a major transformation in the functioning of financial markets, collateral identification (land records for instance) and payments system.


(Article) Payment Systems - Evolving Paradigms

(Article) Payment Systems - Evolving Paradigms

Mr. S. K. Datta introduced the panel members. He highlighted the importance of the theme for speedier financial inclusion. The amount of cash in India is very high and there is a large headroom available for channelling these savings into the banking fold. There is consequently a large scope for increasing the payments volumes. There has also been a large shift in retail payment from paper form to the digital forms. Electronic payments are also

increasing at an increasing pace. Mr. Datta compared the position in India vis-a-vis the other parts of the world. He said that there is a huge scope for electronic transactions. In UK and USA, the no. of non-cash payments per person per year is around 300-360, in India it is just about 6 in India and China.

Mr. Datta described the evolution of the payment systems in India, over the years. He also touched upon the disruptive innovations introduced in recent years. Mr. Datta emphasised that it is the wallets which has shown sharp exponential growth both in volumes and amounts.

He also listed out the challenges faced by the banking sector both on the demand and supply side.

But,  he  stressed  that  there  are  huge  opportunities, which includes not only financial inclusion but also fiscal inclusion, for the banking industry which should be properly tapped.

Mr. Datta finally listed the focus points which may be the basis for discussions by the panel. 

Mr. S.R.Bansal then set the panel discussion in motion.


The  payment mechanism to  bring  in  more  efficiency and transparency in the system is moving from cash to contact less payment to mobile money in India. This evolution has been made possible consequent to a series of measures initiated to contain the systematic risk in Payment & Settlement System. Besides the regulatory  push,  the  Government  initiatives  such  as JAN DHAN YOJANA, DBT, etc. have further given a big fillip to this  shift. The emphasis on  digital India  would further intensify the movement helping to cover more and more numbers of entities and people bringing in speed and ease of making payments. It is in the last 10 years that India has witnessed this major shift from cash based payment to electronic payment system. This was mainly due to various measures taken by Government of India (GOI) and RBI, including introduction of Payment & Settlement Act, the setting up of RTGS and NEFT and of National Payment Corporation of India (NPCI), regulation and promotion of alternate channels and payment gateway and guidelines or security measures for the electronic transactions. This shift has also been increasingly aided by evolution of telecommunication and  computing  technology,  both  in  terms  of  speed and reduced costs. While electronic payment system has  registered impressive growth,  the  benefits of the modern electronic payment system are yet to reach many. They are generally now limited to the tier 1 and tier 2 locations. So, the benefit has  been limited to those citizens who already have access to formal banking.

The financial inclusion  efforts by the GOI in the last few months, have helped in gathering speed in reaching out to the villages. The Aadhar infrastructure has given a  significant  support to  these efforts.  Today,   we  are seeing a transformation of the payment ecosystem not only in retail segments but in all segments such as b2c, b2b, Govt. to citizens and consumers to Govt. At 11.5%, India  has  almost  the  highest  currency  in  circulation as a percentage of GDP. This leaves much room for migration from cash, cheque to e-payments. Non cash transactions per individual are very less. 6 per individual


(Article) Digital Banking

(Article) Digital Banking



(Article) Becoming a Digital Bank - Issues and Journey

Becoming a Digital Bank - Issues and Journey

Banking operations moved from manual to computerised over phases with progress of technology and adoption of computerised operations in business. New functionalities and services have spread around riding over various electronic means and devices -  mainframes and mobile phones, printers or e-mails, POS devices or smartchip cards, internet or ATMs. All of these platforms and devices are electronic, use computers or embedded microprocessors. We term this as ‘electronic banking’. These days another term ‘digital banking’ is used at times, interchangeably, with ‘electronic banking’. In this write up, we take a look at the issue of what, as per the current industry thought, constitutes ‘digital banking’ and if it is somewhat different from ‘electronic banking’ or is the same.

A strict  definition  of the  term  ‘digital banking’  is, so  to say,  not  uniquely  in  vogue,  though  industry  experts and evangelists have described their expectations and ideas on these. In sum, we may consider that when electronic versions of manual services are built for different distinct pieces of services, then may be, we are providing electronic service of banking for that piece, like cash dispensation, money transfer, etc. All or some service may be computerised at a particular time, and the overall activities step by step follow the erstwhile manual  workflow,   albeit   over   electronic  channels. For ‘digital banking’, something more is expected, in that,   the   business  flow  and   services  delivered  may not  necessarily follow the  manual workflow, but,  may leverage the natural  process flow and  strengths of computer operations.

The above tells a little in concrete terms. We gather an impression that after enabling ‘electronic banking’ , a little more is to get done , to move it up to what is understood to be ‘digital banking’. In terms of jobs involved, making an electronic bank into a digital bank involves more in the vision, the ways of handling and organising issues and solutions and also, realising them in the system. Digital bank may be a few steps above an electronic bank in terms of computerisation of processes and their integration, but mostly, the philosophy and structuring of systems and solutions will mark the ‘extra’ dimension of ‘digital’. A little detailed discussion may give us a feel of this.

It may be useful to look at the thoughts found on related industry fora. One of the leading evangelists in the area holds that, a digital bank is one that is ‘built with a vision to reach out to customers through digital augmentation on a ‘consistent enterprise wide digital core’, accessible ‘internally and externally through a strata of access layers’.         This in practice will mean that, a customer touching  a  bank’s  presence  as  a  service  in  any platform – ATM or Social Media like Facebook, branch or Internet service,  physical or digital -  will reach the same uniform enterprise wide digital core and can have the same service at appropriate time in his/her desired platform. The service may be by a combination of many background processes run by bank without customer’s involvement in between. The other expectations are that a ‘digital bank’ should have ‘innate knowledge of the customer’ by leveraging the data to enable ‘predictive, proactive’ service as the winning differentiator. Finally, the human resource for a digital bank would be that the boardroom would think in digital terms, and functionaries (of business verticals) will be able to think , plan and articulate based on digital capabilities and possibilities of serving customer needs.1

We see that the concept of a digital bank starts from a much higher plane than considering IT to be a service department  for  ‘digitising’  services  and  transactions. Of course, these expectations involve management philosophy   and   competence   levels   and   therefore of hardware, software only.

Now, is this distinction important? Or, what purpose such an approach will serve? To understand this, we have to look at how our systems are getting developed and what alternatives are appearing on the scene and even disrupting the scene. While we may take this up in a later section, let us just consider how we developed banking software. The bankers with their detailed procedural and  accounting knowledge of banking,  first document the processes or explains them to computer software experts who go through them and come up with Application Software, and another set of computer experts set up hardware and routine processes. As all bankers are not comfortable in IT and the programmers do not know banking, developments go through few rounds of iterations, and we then get the solutions. For a digital organisation, the business manager (say banker) is expected to know the IT world reasonably well and can think and articulate much better to build up the service. In case of the organisation being more advanced as a digital organisation – the functionaries are IT experts and start understanding the services to be provided, without any legacy thoughts, and may build up the basic service as a more  efficient one,  and  may   knock  off a few processes that the business people thought   of , though were not of much  value. This may result in a new, powerful service that may get a wide acceptance or even if not, suggest a better approach at times.  As for an example of such a thing actually happening, it will be sufficient to   consider that,  despite banks being all around, Google or PayTM and other companies are seen to be easily capturing electronic wallet customers in large  numbers. This is definitely because customers find  some compelling   value   in  that.   The  companies Google or PayTM cited above are only for example and there are many organisations like that – their products are  called  Fintech  products  and  they  are  loosely referred as FinTech  companies that  provide  financial services. The FinTechs are increasingly occupying business space in financial services like payments and remittances and stored value cards or wallets often, posing strong challenge to banks. It is held that Fintechs have  focussed  small  portfolio,  platform  or  products and at times their product or process operations seem lightweight and simpler so that   some people may like it. At times,  such  products address a specific  gap  in the market.  We shall look at this later again.

As we go back to our discussion, we note here that, products by technology based organisations, foraying into  financial  markets, derive  their  strengths  partially from the fact that the people behind planning them think in technology derived mindsets and out of technology heavy knowledge base. The resulting products and services often carve out reasonable space in the market and compete with bank products strongly. The thought behind formulating the solution and the granularity of the offerings are important for users, and will be important to address to enrich the banks’ digital journey.

As to the expert views on what constitutes digital banking, a different way of seeing it is encountered from some quarters. This view holds that use of digital technologies  is  increasing  exponentially  and  people are adopting them easily. This changes the interaction and communication habits of people. These affect the expectations and  comfort levels  of people significantly. If somebody can interact with friends in Facebook and look up train timings           in internet and book train tickets at the same time on the same Tablet or mobile phone sitting in his drawing room, he/she will be comfortable in sending a remittance or opening a term deposit with a bank in the same set up and operational ease.  Now banks have  to fit-in in this usage expectations to remain relevant, and that will involve bank presence in various platforms the present day society uses- say for example - from POS devices to social media; the banking applications need be comfortably interfacing in these platforms, and operations would have to be simple but secure. This is not a single task or single step process but a progressive one , as use of  computerised media, platforms and activities are continuously spreading into new areas. The banking applications will need to adapt to  this  pattern  continuously and  rather   ‘fit  in’ to  this digital life space of people. The specific tasks for this will keep changing depending on where we have reached. We shall see some evolving changes and consider their impact on banking. However, we understand from this that having the banking system on Corebanking, having all  the  offices  or  touchpoints networked ,  or    having internet banking and ATM services available  -  do not complete the task but are only the beginning foundation stones in the digital journey. A bank gets progressively more and more ‘digitalised’ by adding digital servicing capacities in keeping with customer behavioural trends. This and the granular functional details  will decide customer convenience and earn preference. This will mean that product  design and workflow details  will have to  take  care  of  customer  convenience,  expectations and patterns of transactional behaviour, apart from product features, underlying accounting and application security.2

Another line of thought is that digital banking will necessarily be customer initiated , on customer preferred platform, seamless, straight-through, error- free, and provide utility to customer and operational comfort, lower cost,  finish transactions fast, and provide enhanced services ( for example – if a customer checks a proposed loan EMI, it may be useful for him to cast this in some financial planner  to help assess impact of the loan on his/her  cash flow etc, so that a suitable level of EMI can be examined meaningfully. Any banking application providing such a pop-up or built-in extension will be of more utility and relevance for a customer).

As   we   may   see,  a   pinpointed  definition   of  digital banking actually eludes here, but we get the feel. We may say that equipping a bank with fully computerised operations  is  the  base  of  electronic  banking,  upon which qualitative and service content-wise alignment to customers’ behaviours and expectations is the journey to digitalising the bank, and on reasonable alignment, the bank may be counted as a digital bank. Incidentally, these varieties in understandings also have a root in the basic starting point - we started from a universal bank in the back of our mind. There are special purpose banks or Fintechs now , who may be called a digital bank or financial  service organisation .  They  are  ,  so  to  say,

‘narrow’ banks / Fintechs as they may have one technical


(Download) IBPS CWE : Clerk Grade Examination held on 15 December, 2013 - General Awareness

Institute of Banking Personnel Selection

Common Written Examination (CWE)

Exam Paper of IBPS Clerical Cadre Held On 15.12.2013 (General Awareness)

Q.1 ICC LG Choice Award?

Q.2. Export Credit ?

Q.3. Mayanmar old name?


Q.5 CRR in the form of?


(Article) Approaching Analytics – A Common Banker’s Perspective

(Article) Approaching Analytics – A Common Banker’s Perspective

1.   Application  of  computing  in  business  has  grown in expanse and depth very rapidly and added lots of new dimensions in operations, service delivery and business management. Analytics is one such specialised area that can be used to enhance customer experience as well as business manager’s capabilities for directing business efforts with focus. When you call a marketing site and get answered in your preferred language with greetings by name, reckon that analytics have played in the background. You look up a marketing site to view some preferred items , say a TV for example; next time you go to your mailbox to check for emails, advertisements appear here and there on the screen , about those preferred TVs and brands- click it and you are in the marketing site  with the specific  item on the screen. Surely analytics is playing a part in all these.

2.   Data volume gets very big in today’s human activities at business, say like banking, because business delivery and customer operations are on computer, in almost all activities – which means much more information on customer activities are getting captured in computerised environments, leaving trails and records in terms of computerised records. To  be  able  to  understand  and  direct  business efforts internally, or, provide rich and meaningful components and contents in customer interactions, all such data related to customer transactions and behaviour, as also external environmental / market data, are required to be captured, understood, studied and analysed. From all such data, selected portions are extracted, suitably restructured for ease of quick retrieval to help in queries made on this big pile of data, and combined into new data elements forms a new and different database. This process is ETL – Extract Transform Load. These information of different items or activities etc., are  then put in a different database ; these databases form the base of the activities like   storing of   information, retrieval and processing to discover trends, rules, patterns of   customer behaviour and some more related information. The various types of activities and handling in this area are termed as Data mining, Data Mart, Master Data Management, etc.  Under the overall domain of Data Warehouse.  Structured and organised data are made of data elements that follow strict rules of length, content type, permissible range of values, etc. However, there will be much other information which may be in texts, pictures, sounds etc. that may be useful to study and rate. For example, apart from price, a design or colour shade of merchandise, may have  reasonable influence  on customer preference without customer being able to articulate the same. However, by studying customer preferences, the back end system of a seller can have an insight to use for production and marketing strategies. This class of data  will not follow a fixed structure, syntax, size or even the form – these constitute what is called ‘unstructured data’.

After we have these data, i.e., original business data and then reconstructed as mentioned above, we need to analyse them  to find meaningful insight. This part of activity is Analytics. There are other activities  after  this  to  use  the  findings  for internal understanding, relate  such  findings to the business facts observed (proposing models and testing them for validation), rating of various factors so found and create and test business strategy, customer interaction, marketing strategy etc. Incidentally, always a customer or selling a merchandise, are not the target of the exercise. We bankers may do  an  Analytics  of  our  MSME  loans  portfolio, study the repayment histories, the appraisal and sanction procedure, post sanction acts of bank, market  conditions,  overall  external  indebtedness of borrower, family earning and loan histories etc.,

to  perhaps  arrive  at  a  desired  accurate  formula for making provisions for bad loans. Because the data is diverse and huge - thumb rules or simple averages or projections based on one or two easily measurable factors, will not do. And, if we desire to know while doing a Money Market deal, probability of this deal to cause the bank to exceed any agreed risk exposure level or limit at the whole bank level, then the Analytics and the resulting action have all to be real time, within the activity session of the deal. The narrations above are of course a simplified and narrow bird’s eye view only, the gamut of activities and challenges to understanding data in reality, are much  bigger and difficult.

3.   Analytics as a part of the integrated data driven operations of an organisation, will usually consist of classifying, segmenting, grouping of data, computing some values (of result, trend, etc.) representation of the same on screen by tables, charts and graphs of different types, dashboards, scoring tables, or similar any other graphic ( for on- screen) presentation  providing interactive program for business management to study, change a few parameters and see the effect on the result, etc. For example, we can see the impact of   a change in, let us assume, transaction  charges to be levied for services  - - by trying with various different values of transaction charges, and note the expected changes for the same on the profit or market  share; this can be as a graph or bar chart or any other desired format of output on screen that appear about immediately (after entering the varying inputs). This class of activities are often called ‘what-if” exercise. The practice of visually seeing a change in output as an impact of complex business factor interplay, - is called Visual Analytics. Sometimes depending on the domain or platform to be studied or evaluated , a genre of analytics is named – e.g.– Cloud Analytics, Banking Analytics, Risk Analytics, Loan Analytics, in commercial communication. Basically selection of parameters to study, the data elements to be chosen, the  features  of the output, the  business  domain specific  data  elements, and  the format of the result to be shown – may often have some specialities or usage norms; they use business rules and concepts of that domain, and can get bundled and sold under such  specific  names like in the  foregoing  example; there are no hard and fast rules however.

The major target of analytics is to understand the dynamics   of   market   factors,   operational   entities, etc., and then be able to predict market response  or customer impact,  and  then  finally to  provide  suitable links, handles, offers in customer interactions in terms of presentation of the interactive  internet  screen  for customer; the customer can be internal – (like in our example  of  the  loan  portfolio  understanding  above)

– who are   expected to invoke a favourable action – (like  customer  gets  enthused  to  purchase  an  item). With such results for a larger number of sample of customers, the internal team may get helped to select or propose the underlying algorithm and build up a model for implementation and testing The  types  of analytics that  are  specifically  tailored  to predict results or outcomes to help business plans and strategies, have grown into a distinct genre and are referred as Predictive Analytics. As mentioned above, there are many other typenames based on purpose or         business domain (Financial Analytics, Big Data Analytics, Customer Analytics for banks, Risk Analytics for banks – which are  termed and  marketed as specific products by vendors to service providers / banks / business) or on similar segmentations. The major driving forces behind banks going in for analytics may be a few – most notables are:

a.     Regulatory Reforms, asking for more and more data based information from banks.

b.       Profitability/ Cost cutting  in view of  increasing competition.

c.       Achieving Efficiency in operations.

d.    For better Risk management.

e.     To obtain   better insight into business data and customer preferences – these can be customer segment-wise also, providing a farther segmentation.

f.     Attempt to redesign business processes.

g.      Fraud Control.

h.     Loan delinquency avoidance.

i.      Customer satisfaction assessment and enhancement.

j.       Call centre or workforce efficiency.

k.     Cross selling, customer acquisition, etc.

Hardly, an all pervasive project to kick-start many studies and activities in many domains will get done simultaneously, because business dependence is complex based on multiple factors. Any model or strategy, should   better   be   piloted and tested in parts, by adjusting different parameters one by one, and the overall business system allowed to grow with these, in steps of changes to help stabilisation and correct understanding of effects of a change in each of the many factors in a business situation.

4.   Banks handle huge data, and need to do more, which  they may not  be normally doing – say for example while we study loan defaults on the basis of accounts or customer numbers; however, study of relationship of loan delinquency with customer’s family/lifecycle issue history or projected competition of alternative service providers that may affect banking usage of customers, etc, is not easy, as, dependable data itself may not be there, or their relationship to business  results are not understood well. Over and above, the thinking and capabilities required for data  crunching and  finding patterns in huge volume of data, are not in the core competence areas of bankers. On the other hand, technocrats are not expected to have the business domain knowledge. In this backdrop, it may be appropriate to see how best a simple banker can get along with Analytics in the best interest of the organisation.

5.   The various available products of Analytics in the market as they are, suggest that the developers behind them have gained a reasonable insight in the underlying business. The teams of technology experts   and       business  process experts  from the providers’ sides have   developed  these products. The most distinguished and established organisations like Gartner or Forrester rate the capabilities of vendors that get accepted more than for any other ratings in the industry. These ratings tell us company-wise capabilities based on various factors that they explain in these   rating   releases. However,  if we bankers plan  to consider a specific genre of product, it will be good to look into the views on the particular product and domain and check that the functionalities and deliverables are in line with what is our plan and our own domain. We may not at the outset,  be able to spell out or fully plan the outputs or the resulting product to procure,   like we can normally do when we procure a server or few discs or some equipments, or some fixed  functionality   products  like  MS  Office,   etc. There will be some exploratory components in the solution and the outputs. There can be a facility in the solution provided - for user operated (by the banker who is implementing this solution) day to day analysis, report, parameter changes, etc., on a regular basis, or as and when required.  It may be useful to adopt a few core outcomes, like capacity addition  for  understanding/analysing  /  reporting etc for management support, as the desirables; specifics of the solution  can  get defined  and  refined as we go from here. The banker’s team involved in the  initiation of the  specific  analytic  must  have members knowledgeable in the business process of the underlying specific business area operations, for which an analytic solution is planned to be deployed. In most of the situations, the analytics vendors (that include big names like SAS, IBM ,etc worldwide, as also quite a few niche solution providers are there in the top bracket) have, through the assignments handled, collected knowledge and practices of the business domain and embodied the same in their solutions. So, as such many vendors would be approaching banks with specific  solutions – say  on credit risk management, or fraud risk management, etc. These are to some extent ready, that a bank can procure, learn operations, put values of parameters,  get  trained  in,  and  start.  This  may prove to be a very easy and comfortable option for a functionary in the bank side, because, depth of their expertise or conceptual clarities may not be very great always, due to frequent movements in banks or limited or no experience, or also, the areas are new and growing, or, scope of theoretical grounding and exposure to global knowledge and practices are  limited.  Whatever  it  maybe,  these  together may lead to a situation of vendor dependence for operating expertise and also, thought leadership, This may not be helpful for knowledge enrichment and capacity creation in the bank. It is a good idea to expose the bank team for an analytics task / project, to theoretical concepts and industry best practices- preferably in the domain desired to be controlled or predicted with Analytics. For example – if we need to  take  up  an  analytics exercise  to  find  what  all to do to improve capital adequacy and block and mitigate factors that erode capital adequacy, even if a vendor arrives with a ready model and solution to fit into – it will be  useful  to field a team  from the bank side consisting of   business domain people thoroughly knowledgeable in the concepts of capital adequacy,  Basel committee norms and directives, RBI directives, models in industry  use  in this field, etc., testing and validation concepts like stress testing and other global practices, and also internal working in the bank to the extent  that covers how from all the business departments practically which business figures   and   data   emanate and   get  fed into required capital adequacy computations, and, to what extent. The team also should have one or two Information Technology person(s) who are thoroughly conversant about which data elements pertinent to this domain are sourced from which accounts or operations in IT, if there are processing issues in IT that may have scopes to have bearing on the data values (say some values  are repeated from old data if new data is not updated and some others are left blank if new data is not received – the dependability of the data quality  gets differently affected in these two cases), and similar inside views. The IT persons are also to act as bridges with IT for interfacing or aligning any analytics input or output from or to the main banking system (core banking) or its subsidiary systems. Apart from proper manning and business knowledge gathering on the issue to be subjected to an analytics exercise, the usual project management that the banks do, often in their own practiced ways – will have to be in place as usual  for the analytics project also.  However, Analytics  being a bit advanced in concepts and far more advanced in IT-  in terms of processing capabilities and methods than the usual applications that get added besides corebanking, the processing of the analytics activities are to be in the analytics technical domain mostly. However, we need to have some insight and some understanding in gross terms, about the working models and components of analytics.

In most cases, analytics should lead to Predictive Analytics that should predict outcome (example - in which case the chance of a borrower failing to repay will become high), and suggest actions and produce the appropriate actionable (say a special notice to borrower, or, a special inspection schedule for the loan officer can  be  produced by the  system, or the account can be included in providing for doubtful accounts to a decided extent) , and very desirably- the system  should automate the process to a good extent – leaving it for human approval or revision

if desired. The basic purpose is to use superior technical capabilities with control and focus on business goals – not getting overwhelmed or led by technology. Also, providing clean data, appropriate data, data  that  can  be  verified to be  correct  – are very important, as otherwise analysis, modelling, and  predictions  based  on  such  information  will not be useful to business. For the analytics to be useful, the banker is primarily responsible to have clean and correct data in the system. This sounds obvious, but is hardly come across. Incorrect, incomplete, and inconsistent data has been there to an unacceptably high proportion in many banks. Rapid expansions, conversion from manual to branch-based computerisation and thereafter to core banking could not take care of these gaps fully because the older systems and the later systems did not have the same data elements, and often the older data elements were not captured at one place so that many gaps resulted while converting to later versions. Banks have through special drives of data cleansing and de-duplication covered some ground. However, for a particular group data to be adopted for Analytics to provide us with insight and suggest actions  –the   first  requirement  will be   a   special check and cleaning of the data, as also, conscious decisions as to what default rules will apply in case of inconsistency, the actions to be taken for them, and the impact of these imperfections on the results should be understood, and used while appreciating the Analytics outcome.

6.   Before coming back to the issue above, it may be useful   to again understand the gamut of   use of data  for  business  understanding  and  directions and the entire universe of data warehouse, data mart, Business Intelligence, analytics, visualisation, modelling, predictions, etc., to understand the place of analytics in these and its role.

a.       Gartner          defines         Business          Intelligence (BI) to be a wider activity that “spans the people, processes and applications/tools to organize information, enable access to it and analyze it to improve decisions and manage performance” In  this  context  Analytics is  defined   as  “packaged BI  capabilities  for a particular domain or business problem” [Gartner  IT Glossary]. Other  definitions  put Analytics as a science of analysis, or, tracing of

things to their source, or mapping information to its original causes or principles. In other words, analytics is a way to understand causes of and connections among business events, business conditions, outcomes. So, analytics is expected to enable business managers to appreciate causal relations that are not easily visible, lead to insights some of which may be found  to  be  crucial  or  significant.  This  leads to right business decisions that  are  difficult to derive in normal course in view of the usual deluge of multidimensional information faced in business from diverse sources.


(Download) IBPS : Recruitment of Specialist Officers Exam Paper Held On 11.03.2012 - Reasoning

(Download) IBPS : Recruitment of Specialist Officers Exam Paper Held On 11.03.2012 - Reasoning

1. In a certain code ‘TREAMWORK’ is written as ‘NBFUJQNV’ and ‘SOME’ is written as ‘PTDL’. How is ‘PERSON’ written in that code?

(e) None of these

2. How many such pairs of letters are three in the word ‘SUBSTANCE’ each of which has as many letters between them in the word (in both forward and backward directions) as in the English alphabets?

(a) None
(b) One
(c) Two
(d) Three
(e) More than three

3. How many meaningful English words, not ending with ‘D’ can be made with the third, the fifth, the seventh and the ninth letters of the word ‘STEADFAST’ using each letter only once in each word?

(a) None
(b) One
(c) Two
(d) Three
(e) More than three

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(Download) IBPS : Recruitment of Specialist Officers Exam Paper Held On 11.03.2012 - English Language

(Download) IBPS : Recruitment of Specialist Officers Exam Paper Held On 11.03.2012 - English Language

In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggest one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case. (51) over the world, rights related to information technology that are already legally  recognized are daily being violated, (52) in the name of economic advancement, political stability or for personal greed and interest. Violates of these rights have (53) new problems in human social systems, such as the digital divide, cybercrime, digital security and privacy concerns, all which above (54) people’s lives either directly or indirectly. It is important that countries come up with the guidelines for action to (55) the incidence of malicious attacks on the confidentiality, integrity and availability of electronic data and system, computer-related crimes, content related offenses and violations of intellectual property rights. (56), threats to critical infrastructure and national interest arising from the use of the internet of criminal and terrorist activities are of growing (57). The harm incurred to businesses, governments and individuals in those countries in which the internet is used (58), is gaining in (59) and importance, while in other countries cybercrime threatens the application of information and communication technology for governmental services, health care, trade, and banking. As users start losing (60) in online transactions and business, the opportunity costs may become substantial.


(a) Entire
(b) Lot
(c) Great
(d) All
(e) Much


(a) scarcely
(b) whether
(c) and
(d) for
(e) hardly

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(Article) Stressed Accounts Management & Financial Stability

Stressed Accounts Management & Financial Stability

dr-r-c-lodha.png“If you owe your Bank manager a thousand pounds, you are at his mercy. If you owe him a million pounds, he is at your mercy”.

J. M. Keynes

Stressed Accounts Management is actually a misnomer. The actual process of managing an account to avoid stress and future deterioration begins right from the very selection of the borrower itself. Simply managing a stressed account, after  identification of stress, is nothing but post  facto fire – fighting which can  be avoided to a great extent by due diligent and an analytical approach at the selection stage.


In  order  to  promote  a  healthy  platform  and  enable the objective categorization of asset quality in banks, the Reserve Bank of India introduced the Income Recognition  and   Asset   Classification  (IRAC)  norms in the early nineties.   Transparency in disclosing the asset quality would eventually benefit stakeholders, like shareholders, depositors, regulators, etc. This has also drawn the attention of the banks towards emphasizing on monitoring of asset quality on an ongoing basis. Currently,  the  banking  and  financial  services  industry is struggling under the pressure of the corporate loan

‘crisis’, as the number of Non-Berforming Assets (NPAs) in this sector continue to soar. A close scrutiny of the loan sanctioning, disbursement and recovery process have  uncovered a  number of gaps and  inefficiencies. This includes identification and reporting  of NPAs. Regulators have taken a note of it and are suggesting a number of steps to tackle this economic debacle. On the other hand, early identification, correct  classification and  reporting  of NPAs require  greater focus  and improvement.

Regulators are increasing their efforts in curbing the alarming rate of growth in stressed assets. However, one of the less talked about issues here is that how these assets are currently monitored and reported. Banks have their own systems and processes in place for  the  identification   of  NPAs  and   provisioning.   The matter for concern is, how foolproof are the systems with respect to allowing possible manipulations and manual interventions while classifying  NPAs category.

The key issues that banks are facing today are in the nature of complexities around different systems used for NPA identification  and  provisioning,  over  dependence on third parties for technology support, lack of audit trails  to  identify  changes affecting  NPA  classification, lack of training and awareness at remote branches, etc.

The history of classification of stress accounts: 

  • Until mid-eighties, management of NPAs was left to the banks and the auditors.
  • In 1985,  the  first ever  system for classification of assets in the Indian Banking system was introduced on the recommendations of A. Ghosh Committee on Final Accounts. This system, called the “Health Code    System”    (HCS)   involved   classification  of loan accounts into eight categories ranging from 1 (satisfactory) to 8 (bad and doubtful debt).
  • In   1991,   the   Narasimham   Committee   on   the financial    system  felt   that    the    classification   of assets, according to the HCS was not in line with international standards. It was suggested that for the purpose of provisioning, banks should classify their advances into four broad  groups. viz. (i) standard assets; (ii) substandard assets; (iii) doubtful assets; (iv) loss assets.
  • Following   this,    prudential    norms    on   income recognition, asset   classification and   provisioning were introduced in 1992, in a phased manner.
  • In 1998, the Narasimham Committee on Banking Sector Reforms recommended the further tightening of prudential standards in order to strengthen the prevailing norms and bring them at par with evolving international best practices.
  • With the introduction of 90-days norms for classification of NPAs in 2001,  the  NPA guidelines were brought at par with international standards.


1.   Prevention of potential stressed accounts.

This involves right selection of borrowers at the initial stage. The  primary  reason for  high  NPAs  in  Banks is the simple fact that, instead of going to the market and selecting good customers, most of the Banks are depending on a few walk in customers or customers brought in by unscrupulous Consultants. The choices here are limited and the possibility of fraud and misappropriation is high. Most of the corporate customers are referred to the Banks by merchant bankers and loan syndicators instead of the Banks identifying ‘A’ rated borrowers  themselves  and  formulating  strategies  to get a share in their business. In fact, most of the banks do not have a robust credit marketing system. This could address the issue of unhealthy exposure in the beginning itself.

This gap can be bridged to a certain extent by proper due diligence about the genuineness of the borrower, his track record and the genuineness of his intent based on market  inquiry and  verification of the various  reports and records available in the public domain.

Analysis of technical and economic viability of the project is very important.  This requires a significant  amount of technical skills. In many cases, the obtaining of a TEV study report is entrusted directly to the borrower without realizing that he can manipulate the report.   Another area of expertise is the correct assessment of fund requirement, cash flow and marketability  of the product. 

The following are some of the issues which call for careful examination. 

a) The realistic level of sales based on past performance / industry outlook

b) The utilization of capacity

c) The break  even  period and volume 

d) The requirement funds

e)  Cash flow based on  the  sales and  its adequacy  to meet the repayment obligations. 

Many of the projects are failing due to improper assessment of cash flow, fixing of repayments  which do not match with generation of cash and time/ cost overrun leading to the debt mounting to unsustainable levels.

The next area requiring focus is to ensure that the assets are created and funds are not diverted elsewhere. This should not end at the installation phase, but continue on a continuous basis.   Such monitoring will ensure that not only the term loan component, but even the working capital is also not diverted. Hence Credit Monitoring during   Pre-disbursement;  during   disbursement  and post disbursement is very critical in maintenance of asset quality. Disproportionate blocking of funds in receivables and not routing the transactions through the account should not be allowed. This will also prevent any possible diversion of funds.

2. Initiating timely action upon identifying stress

Once  stress is detected in an account, the first thing one must do is to assess the triggers of stress. It could be any of the following reasons.

a)   Due to diversion  of funds 

b)   Low market  demand

c)   Blocking  funds  in receivables (In conducive to the business profile)

d)   Slow picking up of sales

e)   Using working capital for long term investments 

f)    Other reasons,


(Article) Whether, Bank is liable for deficiency in service?

(Article) Legal Decisions Affecting Bankers - Whether, Bank is liable for deficiency in service? 

Whether, Bank is liable for deficiency  in service? 

Facts:  Smt. Surinder Kaur (Kaur/Complainant) and her husband had joint savings account with State Bank of India (SBI). The Bank had  issued two ATM cards both for Husband and Wife at their request. Kaur’s husband was serving in army in West Bengal. His salary  was credited to the said joint account by his employer. 

It was  the  case of Kaur that  on 15/3/2011 she  went  to operate ATM of State Bank of Patiala (SBOP/Appellant). After pressing the button of ATM by Kaur for withdrawal of ₹27000/-, the ATM could not dispense the cash and thinking that the ATM may not be working, she  went to adjoining  ATM maintained by SBOP. At the  adjoining ATM she  was  apprised by some other  customer that, she  cannot withdraw  ₹27000/- at  one  stroke  and  as such  she  withdrew  ₹10,000/- from the  ATM. She  also confirmed  that  the  Balance to  the  credit  of said  joint account after  said  withdrawal  was  ₹28,967.02 as on

15/3/2011. On  24/3/2011, her  husband operated ATM at West  Bengal  to withdraw  from the  said  account; but he could not get the money  due to insufficient funds.  On an inquiry, his wife informed him that she  had withdrawn only ₹10,000/- not  ₹27000/-  and  account was  having balance  of  ₹ 28,967.02. She   made  enquiries  with SBI  and  the  SBI  after  checking the  account credited

*Deputy  Director (Legal),  Indian Institute of Banking & Finance.

₹27000/-  to  the  said  account on  8/4/2011. However SBI on  15/4/2011 debited said  account by ₹27000/-. When her  request for refund/credit of ₹27000/-   was not entertained by the SBI/SBOP, alleging  deficiency  in service she  filed a  consumer complaint  before  District Consumer  Redressal  Forum   (Forum)   against   SBI/ SBOP  for refund  of ₹27000/-  with interest @24%  from

15/3/2011 till realization. She also claimed compensation of ` 50,000/- for mental  agony  and physical  harassment besides ₹ 5,500/-  towards litigations expenses. 

SBI  filed  written  statement stating   that  the  ATMs  of the  banks are  interlinked  and  whenever amount was withdrawn  by  Kaur,  the  same will be  debited to  her account. SBI  further  contended that  the  complaint   of Kaur  was   forwarded  to  their  office  at  Belapur/Navi Mumbai  and  as per  their  instructions the  amount was credited to her  account. Though  the  matter  was  taken up  with SBOP  to  reimburse the  said  amount; but  on their  refusal   SBI  debited her  account by ₹27000/-. SBOP   also   denied  any   deficiency   in  service  on  its part  by  filing written  statement by  producing various documents.  SBOP   further  denied  having   knowledge about  disputed transaction for want  of notice  from the Kaur/Complainant.



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